Dairy Technology

1. Market Milk  4 (3 + 1)

Market milk industry in India and abroad : Distinctive features of tropical dairying as compared to those of the tropical climate of developed countries. Collection  and transportation of milk; (a) Organization of milk collection routes (b) Practices for collection of milk, Preservation at farm, refrigeration, natural microbial inhibitors, lactoperoxidase system. (c) Microbial quality of milk produced on farm. Effect of pooling and storing on microbial quality of refrigerated milk. Role of psychrotrophs, Role of Tropical climate on spoilage milk. (d) Chemical tests for grading raw milk (e) Microbiological tests for grading raw milk. Reception and treatment (pre-processing steps) of milk in the dairy plant : (a) Reception, chilling, clarification and storage: General practices. (b) Homogenisation : Definition, pretreatments, theories, synchronization of homogenizer with operation of pasteurizer (HIST) (c) Effect of homogenization of physical properties of milk (d) Bactofugation :Theory and microbiology. Thermal processing of milk : (a) Principles of thermal processing : kinetics of microbial destruction, thermal death curve, Arrhenius equation, D value, Z value, F0 value,  Q10 value. (b) Factors affecting thermal destruction of micro-organisms. (c) Definition and description of process: Pasteurization, thermisation, sterilization, UHT processing. (d) microbiology of pasteurised milk, thermides, sterilized & UHT milk. (e) Product control in market milk plant. (f) Defects in market milk (g) Manufacture of special milks: toned, doubled toned,  reconstituted, recombined, flavoured, homogenized vitaminised and sweet acidophilus milk (h) Manufacture of sterilized milk (i) Distribution systems for market milk. Quality and safety aspects in dairy food chain, goods manufacturing practices (GMP) in dairy processing. UTH processing of milk : (a) Relevance of UHT processing in the tropical climate (b) UHT Plants : Desription. Direct, Indirect, with upstream and downstream homogenization, third penetration UHT plants. (c) aseptic packaging, types and systems of packaging, sterilizing packages, filling systems. (d) Technical control in the UHT plant. Training of personnel. Plant hygience. (e) Shelf life of UHT milk and tests for UHT milk. Nutritive value of milk. Effect of heat processing on nutritive value. Efficiency of plant operation : product accounting, seeting up norms for operational and processing losses for quantity, fat and SNF monitoring efficiency. Maintaining plant hygiene & HACC).

Practical : Familiarization with equipments for reception of milk in plant; Pretreatments: chilling, clarification, filtration. Standardization and numerical relating to it. Cream separation : parts of separator and the process. Operation of LTLT, HTST pasteurizer, laboratory steriliser. Sampling and chemical examination of pasteurized, sterilized and UHT processed milk. Sampling and  routine microbiological examination of microbiological examination of pasteurized and sterilized milk. Preparation of special milks; toned, double toned, standardised, flavoured, sterilised. Cleaning of storage tanks, cream separators, HTST plants; manual cleaning and CIP. Detection of adulterants and preservatives in milk. Assessment of homogenisation efficiency in milk. Strength of common detergents and sanitizers used in market milk plant.

2. Traditional Dairy Products  3 (2 + 1)

Status and significance of traditional milk products in India. Khoa: Classification of types, Standards methods of manufacture and preservation factors affecting yield of khoa. Physico-chemical changes during manufacture and storage of khoa. Mechanization on manufacture of khoa. Confectioneries made from Khoa-Burfi, Peda, Milkcake, Kalakhand, Gulabjaman and their compositional profile and manufacture practices. Rabri and Basundhi: Product identification, process description, factors affecting yield physic-chemical changes during manufacture. Channa: Product description, Standards method of manufacture, packaging and preservation. Chhana-based sweets, Rasogolla, Sandesh, Ras-malai. Mechanization of manufacturing process. Paneer : Product description standards method of manufacture  packaging and preservation. Physico-chemical changes during manufacture and storage. Mechanization of paneer manufacturing/packaging process. Srikhand: Chakka-product description, standards method of manufacture, small scale and industrial, packaging and preservation aspects. Shrikhand-save as chakka. Physico-chemical changes and quality assurance during manufacture and storage. Sandesh : Product description method of manufacture and packaging process. Musti dahi : Product description method of manufacture and packaging process. Kheer and Payasam: Product description methods of manufacture innovations of manufacturing  and packaging processes. Microbiology of indigenous milk products, predominance of spoilage & pathogenic organisms in Khoa, Chhanna, Paneer, shrikhand, their spoilages, control measures and legal specifications. Biopreservative  principles in enhancing the self-life of indigenous milk products including active packaging.

Practical :   Preparation of khoa from cow, buffalo and concentrated milk. Analysis of khoa,  chhanna and paneer for total solids, moisture, fat and acidity. Preparation of kheer. Preparation of chhana from cow and buffalo milk and mixed milk. Preparation of paneer from cow and buffalo milk and mixed milk. Preparation of misti dahi,  chhaka and srikhand. Preparation ofr khoa and chhana based sweets. Microbiological examinations of traditional dariy products : Khoa, paneer, spore counts, coliform counts yeast, molds counts etc. Field trip.

3. Fat-Rich Dairy Products 4 (3 + 1)

Status of fat-rich dairy products in India and abroad. Cream : (a) Definition and Legal standards, Efficiency of cream separation and factors affecting it; control of fat concentration in cream. (b) Planning and operating a cream production unit  neutralization, standardization, pasteurization and cooling of cream (c)Preparation and properties of different types of cream; table cream, sterilized cream, whipped cream, plastic cream, frozen cream and chip-dips (cultured cream), UHT processing of cream (d) Bacteriilogy of dream including defects, factors affecting quality of cream : ripening of cream (e) packaging storage and distribution, defects (non-microbial) in cram and their prevention.
Butter : (a) Introduction to the butter making process; theory of churning, Legal standards. (b) technology of Butter manufacture, Batch and continuous methods. Over-run in butter; control of fat loses in butter-milk; Microenvironment in cream and butter, impact of critical process factors on entry of spoilage and pathogenic organisms in cream & butter, Their spoilages and control measures. Legal microbiologies specifications of cream & butter. Butter making equipment: Construction, operation , care and maintenance of cream separators, coolers and vacreator, factory butterchurn and continuous butter making machine. Special butters and related products; (a) Manufacture, packaging, storage and properties of why butter, flavoured butter, whipped butter, renovated butter/fractionated and polyunsaturated milk fat products, vegetable oil-blended products and low-fat spreads. (b) Manufacture, packaging, storage and characteristics of margarine of different types. Ghee and butter oil. (a) Methods of ghee making-batch and industrial processes, innovations in ghee production, procedure, packaging and preservation of ghee; utilization of substandard milk. (b) Ghee: Composition and changes during manufacture fat constants.

Practical :  Microbiological examination of cream : Direct microscopic count, Dye reduction tests. Microbiological examination of cream : (a) total viable count (b) Lipolytic count (c) Coliform count. Standardization, neutralization, pasteurization and cooling of cream. Preparation of sterilized cream. Study of construction and cooperation of the power operated butter churn and butter packaging machine. Preparation of cooling butter by the hand operated churn. Preparation of desi butter. Manufacture of table butter using the powe4r-driven churn. Preparation of ghee from cream and butter. Study and operation of continuous ghee plant sampling determination of melting/slip point, point, moisture by gravimetric method, B.R. Index and Baudouin test. Acidity, Halphen Test for the presence of cotton-seed oil R.M. value and Polenske value. Saponification value. Iodine value. Peroxide value. Detection of animal body fats and vegetable oils. Examination of the quality of sodium chloride for butter making.

4. Cheese Technology 5 (3 + 2)

Origin and history of development of cheese manufacture, status and scope in India and abroad. Definition, standards and classification of cheese. Milk quality in relation to cheese making. Treatment of milk; Physical and chemical. Cheese additives and preservatives. Role of starter culture in relation to cheese quality. Rennet preparation and properties, rennet substitutes. Action of rennet on milk in relation to cheese making. Manufacture of different varieties of cheese : Cheddar, Gouda, Swiss, Mozzarella, Cottage. Microbiological changes during preparation ripening in cheese. Role of milk constituents and changes during manufacture and ripening in cheese. Factors affecting yield of cheese. Packing, Storage and distribution of cheese. Accelerated ripening of cheese. Microbiological defects in cheese; then cause and prevention. Manufacture of processed cheese, cheese spread and processed cheese foods. Mechanization and automation in cheese processing. Microbiological critical control of cheese cold store.

Practical : Familiarization with equipments, accessories and standardization numerical. Study of factors affecting rennet action. Manufacture of Cheddar cheese. Manufacture of  Gouda cheese. Manufacture of Mozzarella Cheese. Manufacture of Swiss Cheese. Manufacture of Cottage cheese. Manufacture of Processed cheese Manufacture of Processed cheese spread. Manufacture of processed cheese food. Analysis of cheese; proximate composition. Determination of ripening index.

5. Ice-Cream and Frozen Desserts  4 (2 + 2)

History, development and status of ice-cream industry, History, development and status of ice cream industry, Definition, classification and composition of ice cream and other frozen desserts, stabilizers and emulsifiers-their classification, properties and role in quality of ice cream, Technological aspects of ice cream manufacture, Thermodynamics of freezing and calculation of refrigeration loads, types of freezers, refrigeration control/instrumentation, Types of freezers, refrigeration control/instrumentation, Hygiene, cleaning and sanitation of ice cream plant, Effect of process treatments on the physic-chemical properties of ice-cream mixes and ice cream, Processing and freezing of ice-cream mix and control of over run, Packaging, hardening, storage and shipping of ice-cream. Defects in ice cream, their causes and prevention, Physico-chemical properties of ice-cream  and compositional standards., Microenvironment in ice cream, microbiological quality of ingredients critical process factors and their impact on entry of pathogen in ice cream, their survival during storage, food poisoning out breaks, food safety and legal standards, Recent advances in ice-cream industry and plant management, Technology for preparation of dried ice-cream milk mix. And Nutritive value of ice-cream.

Practical :   Calculation  of standardization of ice-cream mixes. Manufacture of plain and fruit flavoured ice-cream. Manufacture of chololcate, fruit and nut ice cream. Preparation of sherbets/ices. Preparation of soft served and filled ice-cream. Manufacture of kulfi. Study of continuous and batch type freezers. Manufacture of ice-cream by continuous process. Compositional analysis of ice-cream. Microbiological examination of ice-cream and other frozen desserts; SPC, coliform, staphylococci and Salmonella. Filed trips.

6. Condensed and Dried Milk  5 (3 + 2)

History, status and scope in India and abroad, Definition and legal standards: Condensed milk, sweetened condensed milk  and evaporated milk., Manufacturing techniques : (a) Manufacture of evaporated milk including pilot sterilization test (b) Manufacture of sweetened condensed milk (c) recombined sweetened condensed milk. Grading and quality of raw milk for condensed and evaporated milk, Physico-chemical changes taking place during manufacture of condensed milk, Heat stability of milk and condensed milk, Physico-chemical properties of condensed milk and role of stabilizers in the stability of condensed milk, chemical defects in condensed milk, their causes and prevention., Microbiological qualities of condensed milks, preservative used in evaporated, condensed and dried milks : (a) type; of microorganisms occurring in condensed milks (b) Survival and growth of microorganisms during manufacture and storage (c) Microbiological standards (d) Type of spoilage and their prevention. Recent advances with referenced to freeze concentration and membrane concentration, Dried milks : History and status in India and abroad, Grading and quality of raw milk for dried milks, Manufacture of skim milk powder (SMP), whole milk powders and heat classified powders, Physico-chemical changes taking place during manufacture of dried milks. Physical properties of dried  milks. Defects in dried milk during manufacture and storage, their causes and prevention, PFA, BIS and International Standards for dried milk. Manufacture of infant foods. Malted milk foods and other formulated dried products. Microbiological quality of various dried milks including infant foods and Management of condensed and dried milk industry.

Practical :  Manufacture of plain skim concentrated milk. Chemical and microbiological  examination of concentrated and dried milks for (a) Moisture. T.S., Fat, lactose, sucrose, bulk density, solubility index and(b) SPC, coliforms, yeasts and molds, toxins etc. Manufacture of SCM. Manufacture of EM. Concentration of milk by membrane processing. Manufacturing of SMP by spray drying/roller drying. Manufacture of instant milk Powder.

7. By Product Technology  4 (3 +1)

 Status, availability; and utilization of dairy products in India and abroad.  Associated economic and pollution problems., Physico chemical  characteristics of why, butter milk ghee residue, By-products from skim milk : (a) Casein : types of commercial casein, their specifications, manufacturing processes with basic principles involved. (b) industrial and food uses of caseins (c) Manufacture of sodium and calcium caseinates their physico-chemical and functional properties and food applications (d) Manufacture of casein hydrolysates and its industrial application (e) Cooprecipitates: types, their specifications, manufacturing processes with basic principles involved, functional properties and food applications. \Whey processing : (a) Fermented products from whey, (b)  Beverages from whey (c) Deproteinized and demineralised whey (d) Condensed whey (e) Dried whey, types and their specification, manufacturing techniques. (f) Utilization of whey products. Whey protein concentrates : (a) Methods of isolation with basic principles involved, physioc-chemical properties of whey proteins concentrates (b) Functional properties and food applications of WPC. Lactose : methods for the industrial production of lactose, refining of lactose, uses of lactose and hydrolysis of lactose. Butter milk processing : (a) Condensed butter milk (b) Dried butter milk (c) Utilization of butter milk products Ghee residue. Composition, processing and utilization. Nutritional characteristics of by products.

Practical : Manufacture of edible casein from cow and buffalo milk. Manufacture of rennet casein. Manufacture of sodium caseinate. Manufacture of calcium caseinate. Manufacture of co-preceinate. Chemical analysis of whey, Buttermilk, casein, Casein and co-precipitates. Isolation of whey proteins by cold precipitation technique. Manufacture of whey proteins concentration by ultra filtration process. Manufacture of whey drinks. Manufacture of dried whey. Manufacture of lactose. Chemical analysis of whey protein concentrates and lactose. Microbiological analysis of casein and dried whey. Incorporation of whey protein concentrates in processed cheese foods. Manufacture of coffee whitener.

8. Judging of Dairy Products  3 (2 + 1)

Introduction, definition and importance of sensory evaluation in relation : to consumer acceptability and economic aspects; factors affecting food accdeptance. Terminology related to sensory evaluation. Design and requirements of sensory evaluation laboratory.
Basic Principles : Senses and sensory perception, Physiology of sensory organs, Classification of tastes and odours, threshold value factors affecting senses, visual, auditory, tactile and other responses. Fundamental rules for scoring and grading of milk and milk products. Procedure : Types of tests – difference tests (Paired comparison, due – trio, triangle) ranking, scoring, Hedonic scale and descriptive tests. Panel selection, screening and training of judges. Requirements of sensory evaluation, sampling procedures. Factors influencing sensory measurements. Milk : Classes of raw and processed milks, defects associated with them ; milk score card and its use. Judging and grading of milk. Fermented milks; Desirable and undesirable characteristics of fermented milks, sensory evaluation of dahi, yoghurt, chakka, srikhand, lassi and other fermented drinks. Cream : Desirable attributes and defects in cream, score cared  for cream, judging and grading of different types of cream.  Butter: Specific requirements of high grade butter, undesirable attributes of butter, butter score-card, sensory evaluation of butter. Ghee : Grades of ghee, Special requirements of quality ghee, defects in ghee, Sensory evaluation of ghee Frozen dairy products : Desirable and undesirable characteristics of frozen dairy products. Sensory evaluation of ice cream, kulfi and milk sherbets. Cheese : Quality attributes of some common cheese varieties and their defects, score card for cheese. Sensory evaluation and grading for cheddar, cottage and other varieties of cheeses. Dried dairy products : Desirable and undesirable characteristic of dried milks. Judging and grading of dry milk products. Concentrated milks : Desirable attributes and defects. Judging and grading of evaporated and condensed milk. Heat desiccated Indian milk products : Desirable and undesirable characteristics. Sensory evaluation of khoa and khoa based sweets Acid coagulated Indian milk products : desirable arid undesirable characteristics. Sensory evaluation of paneer, chhana and  chhana based sweets. Consumer acceptance studies : Objectives,. Methods, types or questionnaires, development of questionnaires, comparison of laboratory testing and Consumers studies, limitations. Interrelationship between sensory properties of dairy products and various instrumental and physico- chemical tests. Preparation of milk products with defects, techniques for simulation.

Practical : Determination of threshold value for basic testes. Determination of threshold value for various odours. Selection of judging panel. Training of judges, for recognition of certain common flavour and texture defects using different types of sensory tests. Judging of milk and cream. Judging of butter and ghee. Judging of condensed and evaporated milk. Judging of milk powders. Judging of cheese and related products. Judging of frozen products. Judging of khoa and  khoa-based sweets. Judging of chhana wid chhana based sweets. Judging of dahi and fermented dairy products.

9. Food Technology – I 4 (3 + 1)

Status of food processing industries in India and abroad, magnitude and inter- dependence of dairy and food industry, prospects for future growth in India. Harvesting, transportation and storage of fruits and vegetables. Post harvest processing of fruits and vegetables. Peeling, sizing, balanching, Canning of fruits and vegetables, drying and freezing of fruits and vegetables. Juice processing – General steps in juice processing, role of enzymes in fruit. Juice  extraction, equipments and methods of fruit juice extraction, preservation of fruit juices, fruit juice clarification, concentration of fruit juices, fruit juice powders. Fruit juice processing ; Orange and tangerine, Lemon and lime juice, Apple juice, Grape juice, Nectars, pulpy juices, Tropica blends, Vegetable juices. Jam, Jelly, Marmalade, Pectin : Chemistry & technology. Fruits and vegetable preserves, Glazed, Crystallied fruits. Tomato base products : juice, Puree, paste, Sauce, ketchup. Pickles : Principle of pickling, technology of pickles. Beverages – Cloassification, scope, carbonated non-alcoholic beverages and its manufacture. Fruit beverages and drinks, additives fro fruit based beverages. Coffee : Production practices, structure of coffee/cherry, Coffee processing including roasting, grinding, brewing extraction, dehydration, aromatizxation, instant coffee. Tea-Tea leaf processing, green, red, yellow, instant tea. Technology of confectionary foods- Candies, Chewing gums and bubble gums, Toffees, Caramels, Standards of confectionary products. Chocolate products : Cocoa bean processing, chocolate liquor, Standards of confectionary products. Functional foods : Introduction, Phytochemicals, milk ingredients as nutraceuticals, fiber-rich food products etc.

Practical : Manufacture of toffees and caramels, Testing the efficacy of blanching process, drying of fruits and vegetables, preparation of fruit based drinks and beverages : Ready-to- serve drink, Nectar, Squash, Whey-fruit based beverages. Manufacture of fruit jam. Manufacture of fruit Jelly. Manufacture of chocolate confections. Manufacture to tomato ketchup/tomato sauce. Manufacture of soups. Manufacture of fruit preserve. Manufacture of candied fruits. Manufacture of fruit bar. Manufacture of pickles.

10. Packaging of Dairy Products  3 (2 + 1)

Introduction, importance of packaging, History of package development, packaging materials  (a) Characteristics of basic packaging materials : Paper (paper board, corrugated paper, fibre board), Glass, Metal, Plastics, foils and Laminates, retort pouches, package from, Legal requirements of packaging materials and product information. Packaging of milk and dairy products such as pasteurized milk, UHT-sterilized milk, aseptic packaging, fat rich products-ghee and butter, coagulated and desiccated indigenous dairy products and their sweetmeades, concentrated and dried milks including baby foods. Modern packaging Techniques ; Vacuum Packaging, Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), Eco-friendly packaging, principles and methods of package sterilization, Coding and Labelling of food packages, Aseptic packaging (AP), scope of AP and pre-requisite conditions for AP, Description of equipments (including aseptic tank) and machines- micro-processor controlled systems employed for AP, package conditions and quality assurance aspects of AP, Microbiological aspects of packaging materials. Disposal; of waste package materials, Packaging systems.

Practical : Identification of packaging materials, Flame  Hot wire test, Testing of papers/paper boards ; Percentage moisture, Grease resistance, Water absorptiveness, Grammage, Tearing resistance, BURSTING STRENGTH. Testing of glass bottle – resistance to thermal shock. Testing of plastics and laminates – thickness, Water vapour transmission  rate (WVTR), Grease resistance. Packaging of different dairy products by using prepak and vacuum packaging machines. Microbiological evaluation of packaging materials (SPC, Y 7 M, spore count.)

11. Dairy Plant Management and Pollution Control  2 (1 + 1)

Production Management. Definition, Function and structure of Production Management, Production planning and control, work study and measurement moiton and time study, plant operations. Efficiency factors losses, Financial and Managerial efficiency provision for Industrial Legislation in India, Particularly in dairy industry, personal management. Manpower planning, recruitment, training, transfer, promotions policies, job specification, job evaluation, job enhancement, job enrichment, MBO, working conditions. Safety hazards, hazards prevention security for plant machinery and the employees, Plant maintenance. Prevention and break-down maintenance spare parts inventory, tools and lubricants etc. Food hygine, personnel hygine, plant hygine, water quality etc. Cleaning and sanitation – different type of cleaning and sanitizing agents, Effluent treatment : Type degree and treatment of waste.

Practical : Flow process charts of different milk products. Identification of steps of material losses on Dairy plants. Identification of hazardous processes and equipments, safety and precautions. Identification and uses of common lubricants. Waste Utilization processes. Various treatment in waste disposal. Analysis of cleaning agents and sanitizers. Reports and records maintenance of dairy plant. Operational precautions..CIP cleaning.

12. Food Technology – II  3 (2 +1)

Cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds; Structure and composition of cereals, legumes and oilseeds, Milling of paddy, quality factors of rice grains, processing of rice bran oil, Instant rice, quick cooking rice, canned rice, Milling technology of wheat, Criteria of wheat flour quality, improvers for wheat flour, Types of wheat flour, Milling technology of maize, wet milling of corn, Milling technology of barley, malting of barley and its utilization in manufacture of value added food products including malted milk foods, Alcoholic beverages, Dehulling and processing technology of important pulses, Dehulling and extraction of oil in major oilseed crops like soy bean, mustard, sunflower, ground nut, Vegetable protein concentrates/ isolates, Utilization of oil cake in food formulation. Bakery and Snack technology : Technology of bread, biscuits, crackers and cakes, Technology of manufacturing process of Pasta foods-Macaroni, Noodles and spaghetti. Technology of breakfast cereals: corn flakes, puffed, extruded snacks, Potato chips. Meat, fish and egg technology; Development of meat, poultry, egg and fish industry in India, pre-slaughter care, handling and ante-mortem inspection of animal, Stunning and slaughtering techniques, post-mortem inspection, rigor mortis and conversion of muscle to meat, processing of meat and meat products: curing, smoking, edeboning and comminuted, Slaughterhouse sanitation, meat hygiene and zoonotic diseases, Processing of poultry meat, egg and egg products processing of albumen, yolk and whole egg, drying and freezing of egg, quality assessment of egg, types, handling, transportation and marketing of fish, preservation of fish, Manufacturing process of fish protein concentrate, fish sausages, dehydrated fish and fish pickles. Cleaning and sanitation, Waste management of food processing plants.

Practical : Manufacture of barley malt. Determination of cooking quality of rice. Manufacture of bread and bun. Manufacture of biscuits. Preparation of noodles. Preparation of cake. Manufacture of potato chips. Preparation of malt based food products. Manufacture of sausages. Preparation of salami. Preparation of chicken soup. Manufacture of chicken pickle. Preparation of fish stick and fish keema.