Dairy Business Management

Courses offered

1. Economic Analysis                                                                                           2 (2 + 0)

Basic Concepts   :       Wants, Goods, Wealth, utility, consumption, demand and supply, consumer behaviour-law of diminishing marginal utility and equi-marginal utility, cardinal and ordinal utility approach for consumer’s behaviours.

Theory of demand :   Law of demand, demand schedule, Demand function, determinates of demand, individual consumer demand and market demand, demand forecasting, elasticity of demand, price elasticity, income elasticity and cross elasticity, consumer’s surplus.

Theory of production : concepts of firm and industry, basic factors of production and their role, production  function for a single product, nature of production function, laws of returns.

Concepts of costs :  Fixed and variable xosts, short run and long run costs, average and marginal costs, economics and diseconomies of scale. Concept of market – types of market, pricing and output under different market situations, market price and normal price, price determination under perfect Competition, monopoly , oligopoly and monopolistic competition.

National income : GDP,  GNP, NNP, disposable personal income, per capita income, inflation.
Economic features and characteristics of dairy sector in India.
Dairy development strategy with special emphasis in post- independence era and Operation Flood Programme.

2. Financial Management                                                                                    3 (2 + 1)

Introduction  :   Definition, scope and objectives of financial management.
Different Systems of Accounting : Financial Accounting, Cost Accounting, Management Accounting, Double entry system of Book-Keeping

Preparation of Accounting Records :  Journal, Purchase and Sales Book and Posting in ledger, Cash Book.
Preparation of Final Accounts and adjustments at the end of trading period.
Preparation of Trial Balance Banking Transactions and Bank reconciliation statements.
Statements of financial Information : Accounting Systems : A source of financial statements, Classification of capital and revenue expenditure, Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Account, Statement of changes in the financial position, funds flow statements, cash flow statement, uses of funds flow and cash flow statements in  financial decision making.

Financial analysis : nature and uses of financial analysis, Liquidity ratios, Leverage ratios, Activity ratios, Profitability ratios, Utility of Ratio analysis.

Cost Volume _Profit analysis and operating leverage, Break-even analysis, Profit analysis and operating analysis, Utility of CVP analysis.

Capital Structure : C.S. Planning, risk return trade off, financial leverage.

Cost of capital : Management of cost of capital, cost of debt, debentures, preference share capital, equity share capital and retained earning, overall cost of capital.

Project Report :; Feasibility Report Valuation.
Working Capital Management – Concept and determinants of working capital, Estimating working capital needs.

Depreciation – Concept and method.

3. Cost Accounting                                                                                               2 (2 + 0)

Introduction : Definition, Objectives, Common terms.

Costing :  Essentials of sound costing system. Different methods of costing, \
Elements of cost: Labour – Recording of time, idle time, methods of remunerating labour, premium and Bonus plans, Materials, Overheads.

Cost Classification : Direct and Indirect expenses, fixed and variable costs.
Various methods of apportioning indirect expenses.
Inventory Management : Planning, control and costing.
Stores and Storekeeping : Scope & importance purchase procedure, types of purchase, location of stores & materials, Procedure for the movement of stores, different methods of pricing materials, store records.

Cost sheets – Different methods, statement of cost and statement of profit estimates, Tender or Quotations.
Contract or Terminal costing

Process Costing  : Process losses and inter-process profits, joint products and by products costing.
Ascertainment of cost of milk production
Preparation of Cost Account –
Information for managerial decisions.

Practical :

  1. Preparation of Profit and Loss Account.
  2. Preparation of Balance Sheet
  3. Preparation of Cash flow statement
  4. Preparation of Funds flow statements.
  5. Problems on Ratio analysis.
  6. Problems on Break-Even Analysis
  7. Problems on Profit analysis
  8. Problems on Operating Analysis.
  9. Problems on Financial leverage
  10. Problems on cost of Capital.
  11. Problems on Investment decisions.
  12. Problems on capital budgeting.

4. Operation Research                                                                                         2 (2 + 0)

 Introduction : Elementary concepts, objectives of operations research, Applications of or in decision-making.

Modelling in Operation Research :
Linear Programming   :    Introduction, mathematical formulation of the problem, graphical solution, simplex technique for solving simple LP problems.

Inventory Control – Introduction and general notations, Economic lot size models with known demand.

5. Industrial Statistics                                                                                                      3 (2 + 1)

Definition and scope : sources of animal husbandry and dairy statistic. Measures of central tendency, Measures of dispersion, Mome skewness and kurtosis. Elementary notions of probability, Laws of addition and multiplication probability. Theoretical frequency distributions : Binomial distributions and applications, Poisson distribution and is applications, Nor distribution and its applications. Concepts of sampling methods-Simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling.

Introduction to testing of hypotheses, tests of significance -Z, t2, a, F tests, and their application in the field of dairying. Analysis of variance- One way and to way classification. Simple correlation coefficient and its test of significance, Line regression, rank correlation. Basic concepts of statistical quality control, Control charts for variables and attributes, Fundamental concepts of acceptance sampling plan.

Practical :

  1. Measures of central tendency.
  2. Measures of dispersion, Moments. Skewness and Kurtosis.
  3. Filling of bionomical and Poisson distribution.
  4. Selection of random sample.
  5. Application of ‘Z’ test for one and two sample problems. Application of ‘t’ test for one and tow sample problems. \
  6. Application of Chi-square test and F-test.
  7. Correlation and regression.
  8. Rank correlation coefficient.
  9. Control chart for variables and attributes.

6. Marketing Management and International Trade                                       2 ( 2 + 0)

 Concept of marketing : Functions of marketing; concepts of marketing management; scope of marketing management; marketing management.

Process :  Concepts of marketing- mix, elements of marketing- mix.

Market structure and Consumer Buying Behaviour :  concept of market structure, marketing environment, micro and macro environments. Consumers buying behaviour, consumerism.

Marketing Opportunities Analysis :  Marketing research and marketing information systems; Market measurement – present and future demand; Market forecasting; market segmentation, targeting and positioning.

Allocation and marketing resources. 
Marketing Planning Process. 
Product policy and planning :  Product- mix; product line; product life cycle.
New product development process.
Product brand, packaging, services decisions.
Marketing channel decisions.
Retailing, wholesaling and distribution.
Pricing Decisions. Price determination and pricing policy of milk products in organized and unorganized sectors of dairy industry.

Promotion-mix decisions :  Advertising; How advertising works; deciding advertising objectives, advertising budget and advertising massage; Media Planning; Personal Selling, publicity; Sales Promotion.
Food and Dairy Products Marketing,

International Marketing and International Trade : 
Salient features of International Marketing.
Composition and direction of Indian exports;
International marketing environment;
Deciding which and how to enter international market;
Exports- Direct exports, Indirect exports,
Licensing,
Joint Ventures,
Direct investment & internationalization process,
Deciding marketing Programme; Product Promotion, Price, Distribution Channels.
World Trade Organization (WTO)

7. Communication Skills and Entrepreneurship Development                                   2 (1 + 1)

 Communication Skills:
Structural and functional grammar; meaning and process of communication, verbal and non-verbal communication; listening and note taking, writing skills, oral presentation skill; field diary and lab record; indexing, footnote and bibliographic procedures.
Reading and comprehension of general and technical articles, précis writing, summarizing, abstracting; individual and group presentations, impromptu presentation, public speaking; Group discussion.
Organizing seminars and conferences.

Entrepreneurship Development : 
Assessing overall business environment in the Indian economy.
Overview of Indian social, political and economic systems and their implications for decision making by individual entrepreneurs. Globalization and the emerging business/entrepreneurial environment. Concept of entrepreneurship;  entrepreneurial and managerial characteristics; managing  an enterprise; motivation and entrepreneurship development; importance of planning, monitoring, evaluation and follow up; managing competition; entrepreneurship development programs; SWOT analysis,
Generation, incubation and commercialization of ideas and innovations. Government schemes and incentives for promotion of entrepreneurship. Government policy on small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)/SSIs
Export and Import Policies relevant to horticulture sector.
Venture capital
Contract farming and joint ventures, public- private partnerships. Overview of horti inputs industry.
Characteristics of Indian horticultural processing and export industry. Social Responsibility of Business

Practical :  Listening and note taking, writing skills oral presentation skill; field dairy and lab record; indexing, footnote and bibliographic procedures. Reading and comprehension of general and technical articles, précis writing, summarizing, abstracting; individual and group presentations.

8. It in Dairy Industry                                                                                                       2 ( 1 + 1)

 Importance of computerization and IT in dairy industries. Computers, Operating.
Environments and information Systems for various types of dairy Industries, Principles of communication.
Role of computer in Optimization :
Introduction to Operation Research
A computer oriented Algorithmic approach : Queuing systems and waiting models, PERT CPS and CPM.
Dairy Process Modelling and Simulation
Introduction to SCADA & INTELUTION.
CAD and CAM in Dairy industries : Instrumentation, Process control,
Inventory control, Automation, Robotics, Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence, Instrumentation.

Practical :

  1. Applications of MS Excel to solve the problems of dairy technology: statistical, quality control, Sensory evaluation of food.
  2. Chemical kinetics in dairy processing.
  3. Use of word processing software for creating reports and presentation.
  4. Familiarization with the application of computer in dairy industries : Milk plant, Dairy units, Fruit & Vegetable processing unit.
  5. Familiarization with software related to dairy industry.
  6. Visit to Industry and knowledge of computer application in the same.

9. Dairy Extension Education                                                                              2 (1 + 1)

History, need definition, philosophy, principles, approaches and objectives of extension education, present status of extension and rural development programme.
Teaching/learning process, Extension Teaching Methods, classification and selection of teaching methods.
Nature and importance of communication.
Key elements of communication.
Models of communication, process, feedback and problems in communication.
Importance of audiovisual aids in extension education.
Classification, planning and selection of A.V. Aids.
Identification of rural leaders, their characteristics, roles and functions in rural development, training of rural leaders.
Definition of groups, natural types, principles of working the groups and their mobilization.
Need, Principles and steps of programme planning.
Evaluation of extension programmes.
Diffusion of innovations and categories of farmers.  Conceptual orientation about different terms, like- PRA, RRA, IVLP/TAR, ATMA, ATIC, PTD etc.

Practical :

  1. Acquiring skill in use of audio-visual and other aids :  Overheads Projector, Slide  Projector, Use of VCR and PA system, Camera handling.
  2. Preparation and use of visual aids and printed material; Poster and chart, Flash card and flannel Graph, Circular letter, leaflet, pamphlet, folder.
  3. Group Discussion Technique, Developing Communication and overall Skills, brain-Storming Technique for developing  the Decision making process, Interview technique(s),
  4. Identification of problems of village farmers through interview method, writing a radio script.

10. Environmental Studies                                                                                                3 (2 + 1)

Environmental Science : An introduction, Ecosystem : kinds, structure, characteristics, functioning, Biochemical cycles, Natural resources  and their managements, Environmental pollution, Air pollution, Water pollution, solid waste pollution, Noise pollution, Soil pollution, Radio active pollution, Food processing industry waste and its management,
Management of urban waste water, Recycling of organic waste, Recycling of factory effluent, Control of environmental  pollution through low, compositing of biological waste and Sewage, uses of water disposal effluent treatment, microbial examination.

Practical :

  1. Environment and its analysis.
  2. Water quality parameters, collection of sample for pollution study.
  3. Determination of pH/acidity/alkalinity from sample.
  4. Estimation of dissolved oxygen.
  5. Estimation of BOD.
  6. Estimation of COD.
  7. Estimation of nitrates.
  8. Estimation of phosphates,
  9. Estimation of pollutant elements.
  10. Estimation of heavy/toxic elements,
  11. Estimation of lead/mercury, visit to industrial sewage disposal unit.

11. Milk Production Management & Dairy Development                                 3 (2 + 1)

Introduction to Animal Husbandry
Distinguishing characteristics of India and exotic breeds of dairy animals and their performance.
Systems of breeding and methods of selection of dairy animals.
General dairy farm practices-identification, dehorning, castration, exercising, grooming, weighing.
Care of animals at calving and management of neonates.
Management of lactating and dry cows and buffaloes.
Methods of milking, milking procedure and practices for quality milk production.
Dairy farm records and their maintenance.
Systems of housing dairy animals and maintenance of hyugiene and sanitation at dairy farm premises.
Common disease problems in dairy animals, their prevention and control, Feed nutrients required by animal body.
Feed resources for milk production and their nutritive values.
Digestive system of ruminants.
Measures of feed energy, Nutrients requirements for growth and milk production.
Feeding standards.
Structure and function of mammary system.
Milk secretion and milk let-down.
Male and female reproductive system.
Estrus to reproductive cycle.
Ovulation, fertilization, gestation, parturition, pregnancy diagnosis. Artificial insemination and embryo transfer and their role in animal improvement.
Introduction to biotechniques in dairy animal  production. Socio-economic and geographical features of Indian dairying.
Traditional Systems of cattle keeping, estimates of milk production, Utilization and  sale, cattle and buffalo population and its distribution; trends in population growth, annual milk production and per capita availability; productivity profile of indigenous diary stock, industrial by products of livestock industry.
Five year plans and dairy development : resource inadequacy, post partition pressure; catalytic action of international air; major aided dairy projects; public sector milk supply schemes; co-operative dairy organizations,
Anand pattern  and perspectives; milk products manufacture in private sector, import substitutions in dairy products.
Strategy of cattle improvement; pioneering role military dairy farm; key village scheme and its limitations, intensive cattle development programme concept, approach and achievements.
Public sector dairy schemes, Economic burden performance analysis, National Dairy Development Board – aim and objectives, policy orientation in dairy development.
Operation Flood-I, II, III : programmes & Outlay, implementation, success, achievements, integrated infrastructure of milk production, improvements of dairy co-operative organization, Dairy development Corporations, Co-operative Dairy Federations,  Self reliance in dairy development, income & employment potential. Conversion of milk into products, utilization pattern indigenous and western products. Dairy problems and  policies.

Practical :

  1. Handling and restraining of dairy animals.
  2. External body parts and judging of cows and buffaloes.
  3.  Feeding and management practices of claves.
  4. Identification of common feeds and fodders. Preparation of rations for adult animals.
  5. Milking of dairy animals and cleaning and sanitation of milking equipments.
  6. Identification of reproductive and digestive organs.
  7. Demonstration of semen collection, processing and artificial insemination.

12. Computer Programming                                                                                 3 (1 +2)

Problem solving with computers, flowchart and algorithm development, Data types variables, constants, arithmetic and logical expressions, input/output statements, conditional statements, control structures, arrays, functions, structures, unions.

Practical :

  1. Understand different Components of Computer System.
  2. Write a C program to calculate volume of prism having trapezoidal base.
  3. Write a program, which can input a positive integer (<=10000000) and print it in reverse order. For example 9875674 to 4765789. Write a program to calculate sum of squres of all odd integers between 17 to 335.
  4. Exclude integers divisible by 7. Ohm’s law is I =V/R, Write a program to calculate I from given n sets of V and R. Write a program e to generate the Cartesian coordinates of points (X, Y for the values of ranging from 0, 5, 10, 15……. 90. Title and label the output.
  5. Write a program to calculate the resultant focal length f, when f1 and f2 are placed in contact. Used formula is f = (f1 +f2)/F1x fx). Computer for following pairs of local lengths f1 = 10, -8, -6, -1……. +8, + 10;  f2 = 0.5, -0.4, …… +0.4, + 0.5 write a program to sort an array of N elements in ascending order.
  6. Write a program to evaluate following series to calculate cos x, Cosx=  1 x 2/2+x4/ 4+x6/6+ ………. compare the calculated value with the one by using library function.
  7. Write a program which reads in indefinite number of Name, Marks1, Marks2, Marks3 from keyboard and store them in a file along with total marks, Percentage marks and grade in a file.